That last one is a trick question. To that, I might say, more often than you think. To the first three examples, I seriously doubt, but maybe I am wrong.
As a business person, I pride myself on doing an above average - no excellent - job at what I do. I bring in my projects over the finish line on time with objectives realized and I do it in such a way that my customers know that they are appreciated. The job that I do has nothing at all to do with the fact that I am a woman.
And so when we attach titles to women who are in business, as “women in business” I find it demeaning. I am a woman, according to all the gender determinations set forth by nature, and I am a business person, according to my results and reputation.
And that should be it. When I attend events that are gatherings of women who are professionals, I find that the story tends to stray into the the examples in my opening paragraph - as if we can all relate to potty training a baby, or bringing a recipe over the finish line. Personally, it’s been 26 years since I last potty trained a child, and never since I brought in a recipe over the finish line, because I don’t cook and when I do, it’s not by recipe.
So the question is why do we do this? And do men do it too?
I have also heard it said that women possess a higher level of emotional intelligence than men, and therefore make good leaders of people, but I have worked for more women who lack EI than men. I have worked for men and women whose EI was so low it touched the ground when they walked. So that’s also not true from a gender perspective.
I will say I observe something more prominently in women than I do in men, and that is the art of moving over - of stepping aside, of speaking in their voice. I see this in women of all ages, so clearly it’s not about age. So what’s it about? I wish I knew because I do it too sometimes.